如何靈活替換論文中的動詞,讓文章更好讀?

學術寫作技巧,研究論文寫作

如何靈活替換論文中的動詞,讓文章更好讀?

對於寫作規範,學術圈有時是相對保守的,但論文應該要在兼顧趣味性與專業學術中取平衡。而考量到分秒必爭的學術發表競爭,我們知道你一定很焦慮地想著該如何才能夠趕快發表成功,首先得確定研究涵蓋層面相當完善,論文中也做完整的解釋,才能考量下一步。而如何在論文中完整的解釋研究呢? 以下是三大點提供你改善論文寫作的方法。

 

1. 利用文字雲分析字彙

你可能有聽過一個網站叫做Wordle,這是一個文字雲生產網站,點擊「Create your own」並複製貼上自己的論文就可以看到許多大大小小的單字出現,其中字越大的,代表出現次數頻繁!

利用圖像顯示有助於分析讀者容易讀取到什麼關鍵主題與重點,如果文字雲的結果顯示出了你不想要著重的內容,建議你可以修改內容以確保讀者能夠正確吸收到你想要傳達的主要訊息。*Wordle需要瀏覽器使用Java

為了讓你對於文字雲更明確的概念,以下是我們利用Wordle分析我們英文部落格中的一篇英文文章”How to Choose the Best title for Your Journal Manuscript.”

Use Wordle to Analyze Word Usage

圖片中特別大的字眼有「titles」、「journal」、「research」和「papers」,這些單字都正好是我們想強調的內容。

 

2. 研究相似論文中的字詞使用模式

從目標投稿期刊發表的文章中找尋下載次數最多與被引用次數最多的來研究其語言模式。這樣的挑選閱讀可以幫助你更快了解該期刊編輯的偏好,因此你較能寫出符合該期刊的文章風格。

另一個方法是利用Wordle分析目標投稿期刊發表的文章。複製貼上一篇跟你論文相關的文章並分析其字彙,就可以發現該文章常用到的句子跟用語。

舉例來說,假設你的論文主題是抽菸與癌症的關聯,你先找出最近發表的所有跟你研究相關的文章,尤其是目標投稿期刊的。同樣的複製貼上去Wordle,並看看那些特別顯眼的單字,你的論文是否已經涵蓋了相似的字彙呢?

利用上方的連結來做Wordle分析,其結果如下圖:

Wordle Analysis

3. 使用多一點主動與精準的動詞

在維持原有句子的結構下,你可以消除論文中較為沒作用的動詞,像是「be」, 並替換成較為鮮明與明確的動詞。如果你較常用主動語態,這個替換方法對你來說會更容易。同義詞可以在thesaurus網站上查詢,請注意替換同義詞時,意思是否符合原文。

為了幫助你建立一個強大的學術論文常用字詞庫,我們已經詳細列出在修改或撰寫論文時,你可能會需要的同義詞列表。

列在「原有字詞/句子」中的內容不代表完全不能使用,而是建議利用「替換推薦」欄位中的字詞來降低其使用頻率。

 

A. 描述現行研究或先前的研究的範疇

目的 原有字詞/句子 替換推薦
To express the purpose of a paper or research

  • This paper/ study/ investigation…
  • aims to
This paper + [use the verb that originally followed "aims to"] or This paper + (any other verb listed above as a substitute for “explain”) + who/what/when/where/how X. For example:

  • “This paper applies X to Y,” instead of, “This paper aims to apply X to Y.”
  • “This paper explores how lower sun exposure impacts moods,” instead of, “This paper aims to address the impact of lower sun exposure on moods.”
To introduce the topic of a project or paper

  • The paper/ study/ article/ work…
  • Prior research/ investigations…
  • discusses
  • presents
  • surveys
  • questions
  • highlights
  • outlines
  • features
  • investigates
To describe the analytical scope of a paper or study

  • The paper/ study/ article/ work…
  • Prior research/ investigations…
  • considers
  • analyzes
  • explains
  • evaluates
  • interprets
  • clarifies
  • identifies
  • delves into
  • advances
  • appraises
  • defines
  • dissects
  • probes
  • tests
  • explores

*Adjectives to describe degree can include: briefly, thoroughly, adequately, sufficiently, inadequately, insufficiently, only partially, partially, etc.

To preview other sections of a paper

  • Section X…
  • covers
  • deals with
  • talks about
  • outlines
  • highlights
  • sketches
  • assesses
  • contemplates

[any of the verbs suggested as replacements for “explain,” “analyze,” and “consider” above]

 

B. 概述主題背景

目的 原有字詞/句子 替換推薦
To discuss the historical significance of a topic

  • Subject/ Mechanism…
  • plays an important in [nominalization]
  • plays a vital role in [nominalization]
Topic significantly/considerably +

  • influences
  • controls
  • regulates
  • directs
  • inhibits
  • constrains
  • governs

+ who/what/when/where/how…

 

*In other words, take the nominalized verb and make it the main verb of the sentence.

To describe the historical popularity of a topic

  • X Theory…
  • …is widely accepted as…
  • …is widely used as…

 

  • Widely accepted, … [to eliminate the weak be verb]
  • The preferred…
  • Commonly/Frequently implemented,… [to eliminate the weak be verb]
  • The prevailing method for…
To describe the recent focus on a topic
  • Much attention has been drawn to
  • …has gained much importance in recent years
  • Discussions regarding X have dominated research in recent years.
  • …has appealed to…
  • …has propelled to the forefront in investigations of Y.
  • … has dramatically/significantly shaped queries on X in recent years.
  • …has critically influenced academic dialogue on Y.
To identify the current majority opinion about a topic
  • The consensus has been that…
  • Prior research generally confirms that…
  • Several studies agree that…
  • Prior research substantiates the belief that…
To discuss the findings of existing literature

  • Previous studies…
  • indicate
  • have documented
  • have demonstrated
  • have shown that
  • contend
  • purport
  • suggest
  • proffer
  • have proven that
  • evidence
To express the breadth of our current knowledge-base, including gaps
  • Much is known about…
  • But, little is known about…
  • The academic community has extensively explored X…
  • Prior research has thoroughly investigated….
  • However, little research has been conducted to show…
  • However, prior studies have failed to evaluate/ identify / (any other word suggested to replace “analyze” above)
To segue into expressing your research question
  • Several theories have been proposed to explain…
  • To solve this problem, many researchers have tried several methods
  • Recent/Previous studies have promoted…
  • Prior investigations have implemented/ queried diverse approaches to…
  • A number of authors have posited…

 

C. 描述論文的分析要素

目的 原有字詞/句子 替換推薦
To express agreement between one finding and another

  • This paper/ study/ investigation
  • supports
  • substantiates
  • confirms
  • corroborates
  • underlines
To present contradictory findings

  • This paper/ study/ investigation
  • calls into question
  • challenges
  • disputes
  • rebuts
  • refutes
  • disproves
  • debunks
  • invalidates
  • rejects
  • questions
To discuss limitations of a study
  • The limitations of this paper include:
  • These investigations, however, disregards…
  • This method/ approach fails to…
  • This study only…
  • …falls short of addressing/ identifying / illustrating…
  • A drawback/disadvantage of this framework is…
  • This framework, however, solely pertains to…

 

D. 討論結果

目的 原有字詞/句子 替換推薦
To draw inferences from results

  • The data…
  • These findings…
  • suggest
  • show
  • extrapolate
  • deduce
  • surmise
  • approximate
  • derive
  • extract
  • evidence
To describe observations

  • [Observed event or result]…
  • appeared
  • was observed to
  • manifested
  • surfaced
  • materialized
  • yielded
  • generated
  • perceived
  • detected

 

E. 討論研究方法

目的 原有字詞/句子 Recommended Substitute
To discuss methods

  • This study…
  • X method…
  • used
  • performed
  • applied
  • administered
  • employed
  • diffused
  • disseminated
  • relayed
To describe simulations

  • A simulation…
  • was created to…
  • was used to…
  • was performed to…
This study/ research…

  • simulated
  • replicated
  • imitated

+

“X environment/ condition to..”

+

[any of the verbs suggested as replacements for “analyze” above]

 

F. 解釋新研究的影響

目的 原有字詞/句子 替換推薦
To explain the impact of a paper’s findings

  • This paper/ study/ investigation
  • demonstrates
  • shows
  • illustrates
  • proves
  • evidences
  • strengthens (the position that)
To highlight a paper’s conclusion

  • This paper/ study/ investigation
  • establishes
  • proves
  • attributes
  • illustrates
  • advances (the idea that)
To explain how research contributes to the existing knowledge-base

  • This paper/ study/ investigation
  • offers
  • introduces
  • ushers in
  • proffers
  • conveys
  • promotes
  • advocates
  • introduces
  • broach (issue)
  • reveals
  • unveils
  • exposes
  • unearths

額外寫作資源

其他關於如何改善論文寫作等資訊 (例如:降低贅字使用與利用主動語態強化論文),可以參考以下文章:

如何寫研究論文中的特定部分,請參考這裡

其他英文文法技巧,請參考這裡

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