文獻引用格式與”et al.”的使用方法

學術寫作技巧,研究論文寫作

文獻引用格式與"et al."的使用方法

發表論文除了分享新發現之外,更多的是想讓這一領域的研究更廣為人知。讀者可以透過被引用的文獻來完整了解作者的想法與新發現。可惜的是,關於引用的規定有千百種,很少人能夠徹底掌握。我們收集了一系列的文章幫助你了解不同的引用要求。這篇文章主要在如何為引用文獻的作者列表,包含使用拉丁字”et al”的時機。麻煩的是期刊少有統一的格式,因此,即使有以下的詳細總整理,各位務必還是得先檢查按照投稿期刊的作者須知來修改標點符號和引用文獻格式等。

引用的主要類型有?

當在論文中提及引用的文章時,相關資訊可以讓讀者輕鬆找到原文章。在研究論文中引用時,可以使用endnotes、footnotes或in-text citations。不論是哪種格式都需要在文件的最後方提供文獻列表。

  • In-text (or parenthetical) citations 文內註: 當你在論文段落中要使用文獻的作者或標題來引用時,你就是在使用文內註。這個方法也被稱作是「括號引用(parenthetical citations)」,因為引用的資訊通常都在括號內。
  • Endnotes and footnotes 尾註和腳註: 尾註和腳註是簡化論文很方便的方法。利用簡便的符號系統,在內文中使用數字引用文獻。這個數字對應論文最後一部分(尾註)的資訊,或者在文獻引用的該頁的最下方 (腳註)。尾註和腳註比較少在scientific writing中使用,但很常被使用在人文與社會科學領域中。另外,腳註和尾註替換了括號引用,也就是文內註的方式,因此,如果你選用腳註和尾註,則必須避免使用文內註。
  • Reference lists 文獻列表: 文獻列表放在論文的最後一部分,彙編了論文中引用的所有文章,以提供讀者參考。在論文中提到的任何資料都必須呈現在文獻列表當中。

什麼是「et al.」?

拉丁用語時常出現在學術寫作中,其中一種是「Et al.」,為「et alii」的縮寫,意思是「and others」 ,主要用於表示人名列表,功能有點像是「et cetera」 。「et cetera」 是另一個常見的拉丁用語,縮寫是「etc.」,意思是「and the rest」。

「et al.」跟「etc.」有什麼差別?

如上所述,「et al.」只限定用在人名列表,而「etc.」只用在事物上面。除此之外,功能都是替換一個列表。

什麼時候使用「et al.」?

使用「et al.」務必確認目標期刊的寫作風格指南中是否有拉丁語使用與引用的規定以確保使用正確。雖然「et al.」沒有通用的規則,但至少拼寫的部分都是一樣的,都是小寫(除非是句子的開頭)以及在al.後方有一個句點,即使使用的位置是在句中。“al.”是alii的縮寫,而且et al.整個前面至少放一個人名、職位或職稱。也就是說,“et al.” 替換了在尾註、腳註與文內註的人名。但這不可以用在文獻列表中,下面的段落提供進一步詳細資訊以及範例。

如何引用文獻: 關於作者名字

這個部分解釋如何在引用列表中列出作者。以下以作者數量、文獻種類為分類,涵蓋了多數的風格規範:

  • American Psychological Association (APA) style;
  • Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago style); and
  • Modern Language Association (MLA) style.

*有些期刊,像是在Nature出版集團下的,有自己的引用指南。當不太確定該用哪一個十時,請重複確認期刊要求以取得最正確資訊。

APA style: 關於列表作者資訊

APA style 時常用在社會科學領域,書本與期刊引用的範例都在下方。想了解其他資訊以及特殊案例,請點這裡,也可查看 Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing)。

Note: APA uses the ampersand (&) to list authors.

 

引用文獻列表

同一規則適用於所有的源媒體,包含書本、印刷期刊和電子期刊等等。另外,現在閱讀電子期刊成為學術界的常態,美國心理學會推薦將數位物件辨識號(Digital Obeject Identifier, DOI)一起放進去,即使是實體文件。

*不要在DOI後面加上句點 (.)

作者數量 符號
One Books:[Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Title of book: Capitalize first word of subtitle]. [City, State abbreviation/Country for non-US publications]: [Publisher].Smith, M. T. (2017). Epigenetic mechanisms: An overview. Lima, Peru: PublishCo.Journals:[Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Article title]. [Journal Title], [Volume number] (issue number), [Page range for whole article]. doi:10.XXXX.XXXXXXMiller, J. M. (2017). Trauma caretaking and compassion fatigue. Trauma Prevention, 14 (2), 243-45. doi: 10.XXXX.XXXXXX
Two
(Use “&”)
Books:[Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., & [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Title of book: Capitalize first word of subtitle]. [City, State abbreviation/Country for non-US publications]: [Publisher].Miller, J. M., & Wallace, R. A. (2017). Epigenetic mechanisms: An overview. Lima, Peru: PublishCo.Journals:[Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., & [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Article title]. [Journal Title], [Volume number] (issue number), [Page range for whole article]. doi:10.XXXX.XXXXXXMiller, J. M., & Wallace, R. A. (2017). Trauma caretaking and compassion fatigue. Trauma Prevention, 14 (2), 243-45. doi: 10.XXXX.XXXXXX
Three to seven
(Commas separate author names; use “&” before the last author name)
Books:[Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., …, & [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Title of book: Capitalize first word of subtitle]. [City, State Abbreviation/Country for non-US publications]: [Publisher].Miller, J. M., Wallace, R. A., …, & Johnson, C. T. (2017). Epigenetic mechanisms: An overview. Lima, Peru: PublishCo.Journals:[Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., …, [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Article title]. [Journal Title], [Volume number] (issue number), [Page range for whole article]. doi:10.XXXX.XXXXXXMiller, J. M., Wallace, R. A., …, & Johnson, C. T. (2017). Trauma caretaking and compassion fatigue. Trauma Prevention, 14 (2), 243-45. doi: 10.XXXX.XXXXXX
More than seven
(List the first six authors, then use an ellipsis (…) and list the last author;  no “&” before the final author name)
Books:[Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Title of book: Capitalize first word of subtitle]. [City, State Abbreviation/Country for non-US publications]: [Publisher].Miller, J. M., Wallace, R. A., Smith, M. T., Lewis, R. V., Higgs, R. Q., Young, D. A., Johnson, C. T. (2017). Epigenetic mechanisms: An overview. Lima, Peru: PublishCo.Journals:[Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Article title]. [Journal Title], [Volume number] (issue number), [Page range for whole article]. doi:10.XXXX.XXXXXXMiller, J. M., Wallace, R. A., Smith, M. T., Lewis, R. V., Higgs, R. Q., Young, D. A., Johnson, C. T. (2017). Trauma caretaking and compassion fatigue. Trauma Prevention, 14 (2), 243-45. doi: 10.XXXX.XXXXXX

 

尾註和腳註

APA style不使用腳註也強烈建議不要使用尾註,因此,這一類的文章提供的資訊很有限。但有時候,註解是必須的,在這樣的情況下,使用在Section 2.12 of the APA Publication Manual中的符號。

 

文內註或括號引用(author-date system)

APA style使用作者日期符號,文內註則適用於電子和印刷書籍和期刊。*Note: The author-number thresholds for changing formatting are different from those for reference lists. 再者,雖然不一定需要提供釋義陳述的頁碼,美國心理學會還是推薦引用頁碼。

作者數量 Author names mentioned in your statement Quoting or paraphrasing WITHOUT mentioning author in your statement
One [Last name] ([Year]) has argued that [“Quote”/paraphrased statement] (p. [Page(s) referenced]).Miller (2017) has argued that “quote”/paraphrased statement (p. 14). [“Quote”/paraphrased statement] ([Last name], [Year], [Page(s) referenced]).“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith, 2017, pp. 23-25).
Two
(Use “&”)
[Last name] & [Last name] ([Year]) have argued that [“Quote”/paraphrased statement] (p. [Page(s) referenced]).Miller & Jones (2017) have argued that “quote”/paraphrased Statement (p. 14). [“Quote”/paraphrased statement] ([Last name], [Last name], & [Last name], [Year], p. [Page(s) referenced]).“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith & Wallace, 2015, p. 34).
Three to five
(Use “&” for first mention and “et al.” for subsequent references to the same work)
First mention:[Last name], [Last name], & [Last name] ([Year]) have argued that ["quote"/paraphrased statement] (p. [Page(s) referenced]).Miller, Smith, & Thompson (2017) have argued that “quote”/paraphrased statement (p. 14). Subsequent mentions:[Last name] et al. ([Year]) have argued that ["quote"/paraphrased statement] (p. [Page(s) referenced]).Miller et al. (2017) have argued that “quote”/paraphrased statement (p. 14). First mention:["Quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Last name], [Last name], & [Last name], [Year], p. [Page(s) referenced]).“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith, Wallace, & Thompson, 2015, p. 34).Subsequent mentions:["Quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Last name] et al., [Year], p. [Page(s) referenced]).“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith et al., 2015, p. 34).
Six or more [Last name] et al. ([Year]) have argued that ["quote"/paraphrased statement] (p. [Page(s) referenced]).Miller et al. (2017) have argued that “quote”/paraphrased statement (p. 14). ["Quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Last name] et al. [Year], p. [Page(s) Referenced]).“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith et al., 2015, p. 34).

 

芝加哥格式(Chicago style)

Chicago style很常使用在人文領域中,因此以下我們只針對一般的書籍和期刊引用格式。想了解更多資訊,請點擊這裡,也可以看The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition的Chapters 14 和15 。想參考使用符號的範例,請點擊這裡查看Purdue Owl’s NB的範例。 想參考author-date論文範例,可以看這裡。如果電子正式發表論文的話,例如電子學術期刊,你不用寫上你查找資訊的日期,除非你投稿的期刊有特別要求。如果沒有DOI可使用的話,提供網址。Chicago style格式不像APA style,芝加哥格式在人名列表中不使用&符號,他們使用and。 另外, 作者的名(first and middle) 必須全部拚寫(不能縮寫),除非該位作者發表時持續使用縮寫。

 

文獻列表(Reference lists)

書籍

作者數量 Bibliographic system (humanities) Author-date system (social, natural, and physical sciences)
One [Last name], [First name(s)]. [Book Title]. [Location]: [Publisher], [Year].Smith, Mary. Epigenetic Mechanisms. New York: PublishCo, 2017. [Last name], [First name(s)]. [Year]. [Book Title]. [Location]: [Publisher].Smith, Mary. 2017. Epigenetic Mechanisms. New York: PublishCo.
Two or more
(List ALL authors)
[Last name], [First name(s)], [First name(s)] [Last name], …, and [First name(s)] [Last name]. [Book Title]. [Location]: [Publisher], [Year].Smith, Mary T., Mark Allen, Helen Carter, …, and George Turner. Epigenetic Mechanisms. New York: PublishCo, 2017. [Last name], [First name(s)], [First name(s)] [Last name], …, and [First name(s)] [Last name]. [Year]. [Book Title]. [Location]: [Publisher].Smith, Mary T., Mark Allen, Helen Carter, …, and George Turner. 2017. Epigenetic Mechanisms. New York: PublishCo.

期刊

作者數量 Bibliographic system (humanities) Author-date system (social, natural, and physical sciences)
One Print:[Last name], [First name(s)]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page range for whole article].Miller, Jack M. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45.Online:[Last name], [First name(s)]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page range for whole article]. Accessed [Month DD, YYYY]. doi: [DOI Number].Miller, Jack. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45. Accessed June 12, 2017. doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX. Print:[Last Name], [First Name(s)]. [Year]. “[Article Title].” [Journal Title] [Volume Number], no. [Issue Number]: [Page Range for Whole Article].Miller, Jack M. 2017. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4: 243-45.Online:[Last Name], [First name(s)]. [Year]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number]: [Page range for whole article]. Accessed [Month DD, YYYY]. doi: [DOI Number].Miller, Jack. 2017. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4: 243-45. Accessed June 12, 2017. doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX.
More than two
(List ALL authors)
Print:[Last name], [First name(s)], [First name(s)] [Last name], …, and [First name(s)] [Last name]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page range for whole article].Miller, Jack M., Mary Rogers, …, and David L. Smith. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45.Online:[Last name], [First name(s)], [First name(s)] [Last name], …, and [First name(s)] [Last name]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page range for whole article]. Accessed [Month DD, YYYY]. doi: [DOI number].Miller, Jack M., Mary Rogers, …, and David L. Smith. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45. Accessed June 12, 2017. doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX. Print:[Last name], [First name(s)], [First name(s)] [Last name], …, and [First name(s)] [Last name]. [Year]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number]: [Page range for whole article].Miller, Jack M., Mary Rogers, …, and David L. Smith. 2017. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4: 243-45.Online:[Last name], [First name(s)], [First name(s)] [Last name], …, and [First name(s)] [Last name]. [Year]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number]: [Page range for whole article]. Accessed [Month DD, YYYY]. doi: [DOI Number].Miller, Jack M., Mary Rogers, …, and David L. Smith. 2017. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4: 243-45. Accessed June 12, 2017. doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX.

 

腳註和尾註 Endnotes and footnotes (Bibliographic system)

書籍

作者數量 Bibliographic system (humanities)
One First mention:[First name(s)] [Last name], [Book Title] ([Location]: [Publisher], [Year]), [Page(s) referenced].Mary T. Smith, Epigenetic Mechanisms: an Overview (New York: PublishCo, 2017), 23-35.Subsequent mentions:[Last Name], [Shortened book title], [Page(s) referenced].Smith, Epigenetic Mechanisms, 55.
Two to three First mention:[First name(s)] [Last name], [First name(s)] [Last name], and [First name(s)] [Last name], [Book Title] ([Location]: [Publisher], [Year]), [Page(s) referenced].Mary T. Smith, Leslie Wilson, and George Turner, Epigenetic Mechanisms: an Overview (New York: PublishCo, 2017), 68-69.Subsequent mentions:[Last name], [Last name], and [Last name], [Shortened Book Title], [Page(s) referenced].Smith, Wilson, and Turner, Epigenetic Mechanisms, 70-75.
Four or more
(Use “et al.”)
First mention:[First name(s)] [Last name] et al., [Book Title] ([Location]: [Publisher], [Year]), [Page(s) referenced].Mary T. Smith et al., Epigenetic Mechanisms: an Overview (New York: PublishCo, 2017), 23-35.Subsequent mentions:[Last name] et al., [Shortened Book Title], [Page(s) referenced].Smith et. al, Epigenetic Mechanisms, 55.

期刊

作者數量 Bibliographic system (humanities)
One First mention:

  • Print:[First name(s)] [Last name], “[Article title],” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page(s) referenced].

Jack Miller, “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue,” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45.

  • Online:[First name(s)] [Last name], “[Article title],” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page(s) referenced], accessed [Month DD, YYYY], doi: [DOI Number].

Jack Miller, “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue,” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45, accessed June 12, 2017, doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX.

Subsequent mentions (for both print and online):

[Last Name], “Shortened Article Title,”] [Page(s) Referenced].

Miller, “Trauma Caretaking,” 244.

Two to three First mention:

  • Print:[First name(s)] [Last name], [First name(s)] [Last name], and [First name(s)] [Last name], “[Article Title],” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page(s) referenced].

Jack Miller, Mary Rogers, and David L. Smith, “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue,” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45.

  • Online:[First name(s)] [Last name], [First name(s)] [Last name], and [First name(s)] [Last name], “[Article title],” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page(s) referenced], accessed [Month DD, YYYY], doi: [DOI Number].

Jack Miller, Mary Rogers, and David L. Smith, “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue,” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45, accessed June 12, 2017, doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX.

Subsequent mentions (for both print and online):

[Last name], [Last name], and [Last name], “Shortened article title,”] [Page(s) referenced].

Miller, Rogers, and Smith, “Trauma Caretaking,” 244.

Four or more
(Use “et al.”)
First mention:

  • Print:[First name(s)] [Last name] et al., “[Article title],” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page(s) referenced].

Jack Miller et al., “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue,” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45.

  • Online:[First name(s)] [Last name] et al. “[Article title],” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page(s) referenced], accessed [Month DD, YYYY], doi: [DOI Number].

Jack Miller et al., “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue,” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45, accessed June 12, 2017, doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX.

Subsequent mentions (for both print and online):

[Last name] et al., “Shortened article title,”] [Page(s) Referenced].

Miller et al., “Trauma Caretaking,” 244.

文內註 In-text or parenthetical citations (Author-date system)

括號引用法常在的文內註方法中看到,常用於社會,物理和自然科學領域。 書籍和期刊的電子版本與實體版本也使用相同的符號。

作者數量 Author names mentioned in your statement Quoting or paraphrasing WITHOUT mentioning author in your statement
One [Last name] ([Year]) argues that ["quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Page(s) referenced]).Miller (2017) argues that “quote”/paraphrased Statement (14). ["Quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Last name] [Year], [Page(s) referenced]).“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith 2017, 23-25).
Two to three [Last name] and [Last name] ([Year]) argue that ["quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Page(s) referenced]).Miller and Jones (2017) argue that “quote”/paraphrased statement (14). ["Quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Last name], [Last name], and [Last name] [Year], [Page(s) referenced]).“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith, Rogers, and Wallace 2015, 34).
Four or more
(Use “et al.”)
[Last name] et al. ([Year]) argue that ["quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Page(s) referenced]).Miller et al. (2017) argue that “quote”/paraphrased statement (14). ["Quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Last name] et al. [Year], [Page(s) referenced]).“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith et al. 2015, 34).

 

MLA style

MLA style時常用於人文領域,詳細內容可參考以下。想知道其他媒體或是特殊案例,請見MLA Handbook (8th ed.)。

文獻列表 (works cited page)

作者數量 Books Journals
One [Last name], [First name] [Middle initial]. [Book Title]. [Publisher], [Year]. Smith, Mary T. Epigenetic Mechanisms: an Overview. PublishCo, 2017. Print:[Last name], [First name]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title], vol. [Volume], no. [Issue], [Date], pp. [Pages]. Miller, Jack. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention, vol. 14, no. 4, 2017, pp. 243-45.Online:[Last name], [First name]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title], vol. [Volume], no. [Issue], [Date], pp. [Pages]. [Electronic database], doi: [DOI number]. Accessed [DD MM YYYY].Miller, Jack. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention, vol. 14, no. 4, 2017, pp. 243-45. JournalDatabase, doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX. Accessed 19 June 2017.
Two [Last name], [First name] and [First name] [Last name]. [Book Title]. [Publisher], [Year].Smith, Mary T., and George Thompson. Epigenetic Mechanisms: an Overview. PublishCo, 2017. Print:[Last name], [First name] and [First name] [Last name]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title], vol. [Volume], no. [Issue], [Year], pp. [Pages].Miller, Jack, and George Thompson. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention, vol. 14, no. 4, 2017, pp. 243-45.Online:[Last name], [First name] and [First name] [Last name]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title], vol. [Volume], no. [Issue], [Year], pp. [Pages]. [Electronic database], doi: [DOI number]. Accessed [DD MM YYYY].Miller, Jack, and George Thompson. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention, vol. 14, no. 4, 2017, pp. 243-45. JournalDatabase, doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX. Accessed 19 June 2017.
Three or more [Last name], [First name], et al. [Book Title]. [Publisher], [Year].Smith, Mary T., et al. Epigenetic Mechanisms: an Overview. PublishCo, 2017. Print:[Last name], [First name], et al. “[Article title].” [Journal Title], vol. [Volume], no. [Issue], [Year], pp. [Pages].Miller, Jack, et al. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention, vol. 14, no. 4, 2017, pp. 243-45.Online:[Last name], [First name], et al. “[Article title].” [Journal Title], vol. [Volume], no. [Issue], [Year], pp. [Pages]. [Electronic database], doi: [DOI number]. Accessed [DD MM YYYY].Miller, Jack, et al. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention, vol. 14, no. 4, 2017, pp. 243-45. JournalDatabase, doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX. Accessed 19 June 2017.

 

腳註和尾註(Endnotes and footnotes)

MLA style格式一般不太鼓勵使用腳註和尾註, 但需要使用不屬於論文內文的資訊來澄清時,還是會使用。這些註解的格式文內註的格式有點像(詳見下方),但是沒有括號:

  • See [last name] [page range].

See Miller 153-45.

  • See [last name], especially [page range], for [content topic].

See Miller, especially 64-68, for additional information about this phenomenon.

  • Regarding [content topic], see [last name] [page range] and [last name] [page range]; for [content topic], see [last name] [page range], [last name] [page range], and [last name] [page range].

Regarding this phenomenon’s impact on trauma caretakers, see Miller 54-68 and Willis 23-25; for alternative explanations, see Jones 23-25, Thompson 64-55, and Smith 12-15.

  • [Comment]. See [last name] [page range], [last name] [page range], [last name] [page range].

Other interview-based studies were conducted on trauma victim caretakers. See Miller 12-45, Thompson 63-69, and Jones 5-8.

文內註 In-text (parenthetical)

MLA style格式使用author-page style,不是author-date style。

作者數量 Author names mentioned in your statement Quoting or paraphrasing WITHOUT mentioning author in your statement
One [Last name] argues that ["quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Page(s) referenced]).Miller argues that “quote”/paraphrased statement (14). ["Quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Last name] [Page(s) Referenced]).“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith 23-25).
Two
(Use “and”)
[Last name] and [Last name] argue that ["quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Page(s) referenced]).Miller and Jones argue that “quote”/paraphrased statement (14). ["Quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Last name] and [Last name] [Page(s) referenced]).“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith and Wallace 34).
Three or more
(Use “et al.”)
[Last name] et al. argue that ["quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Page(s) referenced]).Miller et al. argue that “quote”/paraphrased statement (14). ["Quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Last name] et al. [Page(s) referenced]).“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith et al. 34).

 

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