英文論文中引用證據和實例時好用的41種句型

學術寫作技巧,研究論文寫作

How to Introduce Evidence and Examples

研究要求我們要放大檢視資訊和評估該資訊的可信度。 因此,當我們考慮到不同的情況時,我們檢查實證數據並寫下詳細的說明來解釋我們的結論。構建我們研究敘述的一個重要組成部分是提供證據和實例。

我們提供的說明能強化我們的結論也可以讓讀者心生懷疑,因此使用適當且符合邏輯的句子引導讀者理解內容。

介紹證據和實例的時機

證據和實例為我們的說明打下一個穩定的基礎。 沒有實例輔助的話,論文的結論缺乏可信度。然而流水帳般的實例驗證的糟糕程度不亞於無法提供任何材料或資訊來佐證結論。因此,當你介紹實例時,確保適時聰明的挑選證據,和使用適當和清楚的句子來說明這個實例如何論證你的結論。

你應該要介紹並連結你的實例論證,當你

  • 說明非「普遍知識」的資訊 ;
  • 根據某個數據來引導結論、推論或說明義涵;
  • 需要澄清一個先前的敘述,使用範例說明能夠更加清楚的時候;
  • 需要找出某個類別的代表性範例;
  • 想要區分概念時;
  • 想要利用某個情況來強調某個特點

建議使用的介紹性句型與其上下文

以下是根據功能的不同,我們列出了幾個句型,雖然這個列表並不詳盡,但至少能提供幾個可以使用的短語類型。

目的 介紹性句型 範例
stating information that is not “common knowledge”
  • [use relevant style guide’s in-text citation format]
  • As [Author] indicated/ stated/ discovered
  • According to [Author],
  • As Smith indicated in a 2010 study . . .
  • According to Marks and Peters . . .
drawing conclusions, making inferences, or suggesting implications based on specific data
  • suggests
  • as evidenced/ suggested/ indicated by
  • based on
  • can be seen/ observed when
  • as seen in
  • which is made apparent when
  • is demonstrated by/ through/ when
  • hinges on
  • The strong negative correlation suggests that . . .
  • As evidenced/ suggested/ indicated by their enlarged adrenal glands, patients with . . .
  • Based on self-reported survey results . . .
  • This phenomenon can be seen/ observed when wind speeds exceed . . .
  • As seen in the high recurrence rates of . . .
  • The causal link between A and B, which is made apparent when B triggers . . .
  • The efficacy of chocolate as a cure for unhappiness is demonstrated by survey results highlighted in . . .
  • This conclusion hinges on . . .
clarifying a prior statement
  • for example
  • for instance
  • by way of illustration
  • as an example
  • to clarify
  • to explain further
  • namely
  • to be specific
  • that is,
  • in other words,
  • This occurrence is rare. For example, only one in twenty . . .
  • It is unlikely that current population growth rates are sustainable. For instance, several major coastal cities are already suffering from . . .
  • By way of illustration, less than 20% of new matriculants feel prepared for . . .
  • As an example, when a country faces economic recession, polls indicate that over 80% of the population supports . . .
  • To clarify, not all government-funded facilities provide . . .
  • To explain further, large doses of Agent O can trigger . . .
  • Millennials prefer flexible work conditions, namely the ability to work remotely.
  • To be specific, bull markets can . . .
  • That is, significant and sudden drops in temperature can . . .
  • In other words, short bursts of high-intensity ultrasound can . . .
identifying representative examples of a category
  • for example/ instance
  • such as*
  • e.g.
  • one/ another example
  • like*
  • excluding
  • including
  • an example being

 

*NOTE: “such as” and “like” have two different uses. “Such as” introduces a specific example that is part of a category. “Like” suggests the listed items are similar to, but not included in, the topic discussed.

  • Typhoons are considered acts of God, for example/ instance.
  • The island is home to many native carnivorous plants, such as Venus flytraps.
  • The only known bioluminescent vertebrates are fish (e.g. the anglerfish and lantern fish).
  • One/ another example of this exception is . . .
  • I prefer outdoor sports like mountain climbing because they allow me to enjoy nature while exercising.
  • All mammals, excluding humans, stop drinking milk at a young age.
  • All stars, including our sun, . . .
  • Hawks feast on rodents, an example being . . .
distinguishing concepts
  • in a similar case
  • unlike the case of
  • in the same way
  • as a case in point
  • in a typical situation
  • in a normal scenario
  • In a similar case, a male patient with arthritis . . .
  • Unlike a single-blind study, a double-blind study reduces the risk of observer bias.
  • Redundancy and wordiness can be reduced in the same way: through careful editing.
  • As a case in point, let’s look at the situation in which . . .
  • In a typical situation, marsupials would . . .
  • In a normal scenario, cortisol suppressant effects . . .
emphasizing a point by highlighting a specific situation
  • for example
  • indeed
  • in fact
  • notably
  • markedly
  • as a case in point
  • Nocturnal marsupials, for example, have . . .
  • Indeed, since the World Health Organization declared an end to the Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo . . .
  • Ice-free habitats around Antarctica, in fact, have . . .
  • High carbon steel alloys, notably, undergo a transformation when . . .
  • Markedly, the deserts irregular rainfall levels have . . .
  • As a case in point, the last known male northern white rhinoceros . . .

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