論文字數超過限制時,該如何縮減?

學術寫作技巧

reduce word count - editing tips - avoid nominalizations

作為修改技巧系列的第一篇,我們要教你如何加強自己的寫作力道。接下來幾篇則會介紹最常在台灣作者寫作中見到的寫作問題,也就是冗詞。

Tip # 1:  避免動詞名詞化

先看看以下範例:

  1. We should take into consideration several factors.
  2. He must make a decision about what to do.
  3. They gave us information about the new research program.

你覺得上面的句子有什麼問題嗎?這些句子在文法上來說完全正確,但是因為使用了名詞化的動詞而導致力度下降。也就是不直接使用有力的動詞而選用這些動詞的名詞型。

  1. We should take into consideration several factors. [7個字]
  2. He must make a decision about what to do. [9個字]
  3. They gave us information about the new research program. [9個字]

紅色部分就是動詞名詞化,我們可以將這部分直接用一個字替換。這樣就可以將字數縮減並維持在限制內,寫作時注意文法結構一定能夠省事不少 

  1. We should consider several factors. [5個字]
  2. He must decide about what to do. [7個字]
  3. They informed us about the new research program. [8個字]

動詞名詞化還有另一個缺點就是容易寫出被動語態結構。不多說,一起看看以下範例吧:

 × The analysis of how X-factor impacts B gene expression was conducted. [11個字]

 We analyzed X-factor’s impact on B gene expression. [8個字]

利用把名詞化轉成一個動詞,輕輕鬆鬆把句子轉成主動語態並成功縮減字數。

如果你檢視過常見的動詞名詞化,可以發現一個模式。動詞使用像是”make”和”take,” 動名詞(verb+ing), 或名詞由 -tion-sion-ment-ence, 和 -ance 結尾的,很高機率都有一個相對應的動詞, 所以當你在修改英文時,利用尋找功能找出這些結尾和動詞後修正就好囉!

什麼時候該修改動詞名詞化?

有時候動詞名詞化的確是必須或無法避免的,但目前來看我們是過度使用了。下方我們列出常見的應修正名詞化的情況:

  1. 無意義動詞 + 動詞名詞形:刪除無意義的,將動詞名詞形轉換為主要動詞。
    • Joe will conduct research on the impact of the recent drought on local wildlife. → Joe will research the recent drought’s impact on local wildlife.
    • The board will make a decision next week about whether to accept you next week. → The board will decide next week whether to accept you.
  2. 當動詞名詞形是被動語態結構的主詞時:找出真正的主詞,並將動詞名詞形轉換為該主題的動詞。
    • The approval of the plan was given by the committee yesterday. → The committee approved the plan yesterday.
  3. 動詞名詞形兩兩相接: 轉化第一個動詞名詞形為動詞,保留第二個或將其轉化成疑問子句。
    • Their interpretation of the implementation of the institute’s program was insightful. → They insightfully interpreted how the institute implemented its program.
    • First was their introduction of their analysis of dreams by the trauma patients. → First, they introduced how they analyzed the trauma patients’ dreams.
  4. 當主詞中的動詞名詞形與謂詞的動詞名詞形時: 將兩個動詞名詞形轉成動詞,考量兩者的關係並加上合理的連接詞(because, when, if, although, even though, despite, etc.)。.
    • Her understanding of the situation was evidenced by the quitting of her job. → She understood the situation … she quit her job → When she quit her job, she showed she understood the situation.

 

現在一起來練習今天所學習到的東西吧!

初階

  1. We made an agreement not to buy the house.
  2. They reached the conclusion that we should run a new cohort study.
  3. Our review of the test results will begin tomorrow.

進階

  1. The discovery of a new planet by the Frankfurt Observatory excited the scientific community.
  2. The failure of the staff to organize the festival properly was a disappointment to us.
  3. The undertaking of building the new company was complicated by their lack of experience.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

解答:

  1. We agreed to not buy the house.
  2. They concluded that we should run a new cohort study.
  3. Starting tomorrow, we will review the test results.
  4. The Frankfurt Observatory discovered a new planet, which excited the scientific community.
  5. When the staff failed to organize the festival properly, they disappointed us.
  6. They lacked experience, which complicated how they built the new company.

 

 

 

 

 

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