英文作文中,冒號分號該怎麼用?

英文寫作

你有想過冒號跟分號這麼像,它們的用法有什麼差別嗎? 這是許多人在寫英文作文蠻常搞錯的一部分,今天只挑出這兩個符號來仔細分解。 搞清楚這兩個符號,不論是寫英文作文或是英文論文,都會有很大的幫助。想要了解其他標點符號,可以看英文標點符號使用(1/2)

Semi Colon ( ; )

分號用來分離句子,效用比句號還要弱

  1. 如果句中已經使用commas(逗號)的情況下,想要分離單字或句子時使用
  • I bought shiny, ripe apples; small, sweet, juicy grapes; and firm pears.
  • Mary’s favorite dinner foods are chicken, with Cayenne pepper; salad, with Italian dressing; toast, with garlic and butter; and soup, with scallions, cheese, and mushrooms.
  1. 合併兩句子時使用
    句子可以在單獨的狀態下成為一個句子,也可以使用分號合併。因為兩個句子被分號連結起來,表示某種程度上它們是一個句子。
  • I went to the grocery store today. I bought a ton of fruit. Apples, grapes, and pears were on sale.
    ->
    I went to the grocery store today; I bought a ton of fruit. Apples, grapes, and pears were all on sale.
    OR
    I went to the grocery store today. I bought a ton of fruit; apples, grapes, and pears were all on sale.

不可以寫成

  • I went to the grocery store today; I bought a ton of fruit; apples, grapes, and pears were all on sale.

分號的使用與第一個使用方法有關聯。有三個短句子但無法挑選的時候,就用這種方法讓它好看。更重要的用途是想強調兩個句子有關連性。
舉例來說,”I bought a ton of fruit” 和 “Apples, grapes, and pears were all on sale” 兩個句子使用分號連結的話,就能夠強調出”因為在水果大拍賣,所以我買了超多食物” 。

  1. 有‘however’ 和 ‘for example’的時候,使用分號
  • Mary ate dinner; however, she was hungry an hour later.
  • Mary’s dinner was made with several spices; for example, the chicken was sprinkled with Cayenne pepper.

writing

Colon ( : )

冒號可以接在一個單獨的句子後面,做增加額外說明使用。例如想要讀者特別注意某些重點時或其他想法。

1. 介紹目錄或使用名詞, 名詞子句, 引用句, 舉例等情況時
  • 列舉: We covered many of the fundamentals in our writing class: grammar, punctuation, style, and voice.
  • 寫名詞或名詞句: My roommate gave me the things I needed most: companionship and quiet.
  • 寫引用句: Shakespeare said it best: “To thine own self be true.”
  • 舉例或說明: Many graduate students discover that there is a dark side to academia: late nights, high stress, and a crippling addiction to caffeinated beverages.
  • 目錄的額外說明: Mary’s dinner consisted of the following: salad, soup, chicken, and toast.
  • 引用句的額外說明: The words Ivan spoke were very kind: “Mary, I made this dinner especially for you, dear.”
2. 合併文章時

總結或說明前一句時,可以使用分號,但兩句必須是完整句子且有關聯性。 且時常使用分號可能有妨礙文章脈絡的疑慮,需要注意。

  • Life is like a puzzle: half the fun is in trying to work it out.
3. 切分時間、 標題時

分號可以使用在切分時間的單位、比率或是章節

  • Hours and Minutes: Mary ate dinner at 9:12.
  • Ratio: Mary’s ratio of carbohydrate intake to protein was 3:1.
  • Bible verses and chapters (Matthew 2:24).

寫參考文獻時,列與參考文獻時也使用分號。

  • Kurlansky, M. (2002). Salt: A world history. New York, NY: Walker and Co.

切分標題跟副標題時使用。

  • Everest: The Last Frontier

在正式的商業信件中,可以直接在招呼語後使用。 (較不正式的信件可以使用逗號即可)

  • Dear Editor:

冒號後的第一個單字須用大寫嗎?
如果是兩個獨立句子中間用分號連結,大小寫沒有差別,但如果是有從屬關係的,後方句子必須小寫。

寫英文論文, 留學ESSAY, SOP英文讀書計畫, Personal Statement英文自傳等英文文件的時候,如果能夠確實掌握分號及冒號的使用,可以寫出更有效率的內容。 但是如果不親自動手寫,也是會生疏望計,建議大家多動動筆並將完成的英文作文送交英文編修,透過與專家的互動,增進自己的英文寫作實力。

 

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