如何掌握研究簡報Q&A的要領

學界資訊,學術英文

一步步成功掌握簡報Q&A之要領

當您進行研究簡報時,面對觀眾們的問題可能是最困難的部分之一。除了必須面對在學術同儕面前說話的壓力之外,更有許多的原因導致回答問題變得更加困難,例如:溝通上的困難、缺乏相關訊息、無法確切的了解問題的意思、或甚至是無法清楚地聽到提問者所說的話。即使您對於您的研究主題有非常透徹的了解,這些觀眾的提問都可能帶給研究者非常大的挫折感,就算是對於最優秀的研究者也不例外。

但即使如此,也並不代表您無法事先準備Q&A部份,也不代表您無法將此部分進行得更有效率。以下要領提供您一個全面性的方法,來應對研究簡報過程中所遇到的各式提問,另外,我們也提供您一些建議,以幫助您應對艱難的問題及尷尬的場面。

簡報之前

在您進行簡報之前,您可以使用一些基本的策略進行事前的準備,以避免您毫無防備地面對各種提問。

  • 準備可能被提問之問題清單

想像您自己是坐在觀眾席的同儕研究者,面對您的研究內容,您可能會提出什麼樣的疑問?將您可能提出的問題按照研究論文的各個部份分門別類 (緒論、研究方法、結果、結論),並盡可能寫下關於各個部份所有可能被提出的問題,越多越好。

  • 將您的問題清單劃分為 (1) 您有辦法回答的問題,以及 (2) 您無法回答、或是不願意回答的問題

在您寫下的問題當中,有些是您很樂意回答的,但有些是您沒有能力回答的,或是您不想要回答的(至少在觀眾面前不願意回答)。將您列出的問題分成這幾個類別,您便可以清楚的知道,當面對各種問題時,您所可以採取的對應方法。

  • 大聲的練習各種問題的提問方式及對應方式

檢閱每個您列出的問題,並試著用不同的方式來提問,就算是同一個問題,也可能有各式各樣的提問方式。接下來,根據您對於研究主題所擁有的知識,以及我們下列要領中所提供的範例句子,您可以試著練習回答問題。Practice makes perfect!

進行Q&A 的步驟

 

Step 1: 開始Q&A時間—告訴您的觀眾您將要開始Q&A時間

Presenter: “I will now answer any questions you have about this research. Please speak slowly and clearly.”

Step 2: 闡明問題—在您回答問題之前,您應該確保您了解問題的意思。以下是在不同情境下有助於您闡明問題的各種用語。

情境 如何闡明
You didn’t hear the question “Sorry, I didn’t catch all of that.”“Could you repeat your question, please?”
You don’t understand the overall question “I’m afraid I don’t understand.”“Could you please rephrase the question?”
You aren’t sure about the details of the question “I don’t quite understand…”“Are you asking about (the 1995 study)?”“Are you referring to (the peptides discussed in Figure 2.3)?”“Do you mean (the patients in the placebo group) ?”“Could you be more specific?”
You still can’t understand the question even after repeating “I’m sorry. I still don’t understand your question.”“Could I come back to you later?”“Could you please talk to me after the session?”

Step 3: 回答問題—當您了解問題的意思之後,您便可以開始回答觀眾的問題。

3a. 以禮貌性的評論開啟您的回答—當您回答問題之前,建議您可以先感謝觀眾的提問,或者是稱讚他們的提問。

對提問觀眾的禮貌性評論
“That’s a great question. Thank you for asking.”
“I appreciate your question and am happy to answer it.”
“What a thoughtful question! I’m glad you asked.”
“What an interesting question! I’ll do my best to answer.”

3b. 提供合適的答案—每個問題都是特殊的,並且有各種回答的方式。根據您回答問題的能力,以下提供您面對不同情境時所可以使用的各種用語。

Response Type A: 當您無法回答或者是不願意回答問題時

若您沒有能力回答問題,或是不願意回答問題時,您可以利用下列的用語來表達。

情境 應對方法
You don’t know the answer to the question “I’m sorry. I’m afraid I don’t know the answer to that question.”“I will look into that and follow up with you.”“I can’t answer now, but I will try to find out more about this.”
You don’t want to answer the question publicly “I’m sorry–could we discuss this issue after the session?”“I’d rather discuss this issue privately please.”
You don’t have enough information to answer  “We aren’t aware of any details at this time.”“We don’t have information about this yet.”
You have to await  further research “We are awaiting further research on this issue.”“We need to do more studies to answer this.”

Response Type A 範例: 以下為研究相關問題及對應方式的真實範例

情境 問題範例 回應方式
You don’t know the answer to the question “What about the data collected between 1994 and 1997?” “I’m sorry. I’m afraid I don’t know the answer to that question.”
You don’t want to answer the question publicly “When is the latest version of this study going to be published?” “I’d rather discuss this issue privately, please.”
You don’t have enough information yet  “What are the findings of other state hospitals on this issue?”  “We don’t have information about this yet.”“We are awaiting further research on this.”

Response Type B: 您有辦法回答問題,但需要一點時間或是更多的詳細資訊。

有時您會需要進一步的釐清問題,或者是您在回答之前需要一點時間。下列提供您在各種情境之下適當的對應方法,以便讓您的觀眾了解您的需求。

情境 回應方式
You have to think about the question [*Repeat the whole question or part of it]“Please give me a moment to think about this question.”“Just one moment—I need to consider my answer.”
You need more details about this question “Just so I understand…”“Are you referring to (the methods of analysis or to the experiment)?“Do you mean (the Smith study from 2014)?“What information are you referring to exactly?”

Response Type B:以下為研究相關問題及對應方式的真實範例

情境 問題範例 回應方式
You have to think about the question “Were all sample groups in the study in the same cohort?” “In the same cohort? Please give me a moment to think about this question.”
You need more details about this question “What about the data collected between 1994 and 1997?” “The data collected between 1994 and 1997? Which data are you referring to exactly?”

研究報告不同部份的Q&A問題

您除了可能需要回答有關於研究整體的相關問題,根據研究報告的不同部份,提問者可能的問題也不同,下列提供您各個論文部份您可能會遇到的問題範例,及建議的回應方式。

研究方法相關問題

問題/評論 回應方式
“Have you used this approach?” “No, but thank you for your input. We will look into this.”“We considered this approach. But there were some problems.”
“Why did you use this method of analysis?” “There were several reasons for this. First…”“We found several other methods to be problematic.”“We have explained our rational fully in the paper.”
“What limitations to the study did you identity?” “We didn’t identify any specific limitations.”“We did identify a couple of limitations. These include…”

 研究結果/研究Implication相關問題

Question/Comment Possible Responses
“Could you elaborate on the results of X?” “Yes. What results would you like to know about?”“I’m afraid I can’t say more about the findings now.”
“What are the implications of these findings?” “Most importantly, these findings imply that…”“There are several implications here. First…”“I’m afraid I can’t say more about the implications now.”
“Could this study impact any other related areas of research?”  “These results might impact areas of (medicine/patient care/administration, etc.).”“We need more information to answer this question.”“Our conclusions are limited to this area of research.”

 

重新檢閱簡報特定部份或引用相關圖表—當您回答問題時,您可以重新檢閱簡報的附註,或是利用圖表來輔助。

Situation Example Questions How to Respond
Reviewing a part of your presentation “Could you repeat what methods of analysis you used?” “As I mentioned earlier…”“Let’s look at this slide again…”“Yes. Looking at slide 34…”
Referencing a visual aid “Are the data in Figure 4 representative of all sample groups?”“What is being measured in Table 2.2?” “Let’s take a look at this figure again.”“As you can see in this chart/graph/figure…”“Let me explain this figure again.”

 成功掌握 Q&A 要領的整體技巧—當您在練習Q&A的回應方法時,請注意一併準備您的態度、手勢和聲音。下列提供您一些簡單的技巧來幫助您更順利的進行簡報。

  1. Stand up straight and tall—這能使您在公開場合中更有自信的說話。
  2. Be friendly and warm—保持微笑並有禮貌地回答問題,能讓您在Q&A過程中更加放鬆。
  3. Delay your answers and take your time—放慢說話速度,不要急著回答每個問題,確保您在回答問題之前,已清楚地了解每個問題的意思。
  4. Display a slide with your contact information—這有助於讓觀眾們得知,若未來有更多相關問題時,該如何聯繫您。

Wordvice 相關文章

“How to Write a Research Paper Introduction” 

“Which Verb Tenses to Use in a Research Paper”

“How to Write an Abstract for a Research Paper”

“How to Write a Research Paper Title”

“Useful Phrases for Academic Writing”

“Common Transition Terms in Academic Papers”

“Active and Passive Voice in Research Papers”

“100+ Verbs That Will Make Your Research Writing Amazing”

“Tips for Paraphrasing in Research Papers”

其他資源

9 Tips for Handling Q&A Sessions (Inc)

Tips for Handling Q&A Sessions (USM Writing Center)

How to Create a Research Presentation (UCSM McNair Scholars)

 

 

Leave a Reply

Be the First to Comment!

Notify of

wpDiscuz