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如何使用形容詞

形容詞是為名詞代名詞提供質量或數量訊息的詞。形容詞包括很多種,都是用來描述某物的。冠詞也屬於形容詞,因為它們修飾名詞。

例句
He has a cute puppy.
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This movie is my favorite.

形容詞的種類

形容詞類別 形容詞功能 例句
描述性形容詞

描述一個名詞或代名詞

We saw a beautiful sunset.

數量形容詞

提供名詞或代名詞的數量訊息

She brought three bags of chips.

專有形容詞

以專有名詞的形容詞形式出現

Japanese animations are very popular.

指示形容詞

直接指某事或某人

This book is well-written.

所有格形容詞

表示所有者的事物

Did you see my pen?

疑問形容詞

表示某個問題

Which song is your favorite?

非確定形容詞

提供相關名詞的非確定性訊息

He found a few crystals in the cave.

複合形容詞

將至少兩個詞組合成一個用來修飾名詞的詞彙單元

The composite is composed of fine-milled filaments.

描述性形容詞

描述性形容詞用於描述名詞或代詞。它們提供關於某物的修飾性訊息。

例句
The girl has a doll.
The girl has a pretty doll.

在上例中,“pretty”是一個描述性形容詞。它描述了女孩的洋娃娃。

例句
We used a system to detect the response.
We used an adaptive system to detect the transient response.

描述性形容詞通常表達重要訊息。“A system to detect the response”是語義模糊的,不夠確切。“An adaptive system to detect the transient response”就具體得多,因此表達的訊息更為豐富。

數量形容詞

數量形容詞描述一個名詞的數量。這個數量可以是一個精確的數字。

例句
Bacteria samples were cultivated for the experiment.
Three bacteria samples were cultivated for the experiment.

需要注意的是,數量形容詞也包括“whole”或“complete”等詞。

例句
A voltage drop can cause the instrument to malfunction.
A complete voltage drop can cause the instrument to malfunction.

專有形容詞

專有形容詞就是專有名詞的形容詞形式。專有名詞是特定名稱,通常以大寫字母開頭。民族、語言、機構和學校都屬於專有名詞。

例句
Korean fried chicken is the tastiest.
例句
The admissions officer told me that Harvard classes are rigorous.
例句
Did you pick up the French textbook?

Korean, HarvardFrench都是專有名詞。然而,在上述語境中,它們被當作形容詞使用。

指示形容詞

指示形容詞直接指示名詞。

例句
This paper proposes a new algorithm that can detect seismic signals.
例句
Please be careful; those books are very old.

指示形容詞必須位於它所描述的名詞的前面。

錯誤
Star that is the brightest in the sky.
正確
That star is the brightest in the sky.

常用的指示形容詞包括: that, this, those, these

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所有格形容詞

所有格形容詞指示的是擁有或占有某個給定名詞的人。

例句
Our results revealed that a sudden drop in voltage can lead to enhanced performance.
例句
He was reading when his brother called him.

像指示形容詞一樣,所有格形容詞也必須總是位於它所描述的名詞的前面。

錯誤
The results of study their were found to be inaccurate.
正確
The results of their study were found to be inaccurate.

常用的所有格形容詞包括: my, your, his, her, our, their, its

疑問形容詞

疑問形容詞表示疑問句。

例句
Whose textbook is that?
例句
What is the motivation behind this study?
例句
Which sample is the most viable?

疑問形容詞只有以下三個: what, which, whose

非確定形容詞

非確定形容詞描述的是關於名詞的不確定訊息。

例句
While it is possible to argue for some association between the subgroups, no concrete evidence was found.

在上例中,作者沒有給出關於子群體之間關聯的具體數字或數據。

例句
Every sample was tested for contamination reduction.
例句
It was found that most of the subjects were not up to date on their vaccines.

常用的非確定形容詞包括: some, every, each, most, several, many

複合形容詞

複合形容詞通常是描述名詞的複合詞。組成複合形容詞的單詞之間使用連字號連接。

例句
We have developed a long-term solution to transient electromagnetic interference.
例句
The bitter old man was once a naïve, bright-eyed boy.

然而,複合形容詞也可以是單詞的簡單組合,通常用引號括起來。這在學術寫作中不常見,但在口語中很常見。

例句
She had her hair pulled back into her “I could not be bothered to care” bun.

形容詞的程度表示形式

在表示比較的意思時,形容詞的形式會發生變化。比較包括三種程度:原級,比較級,最高級。以形容詞“bright”為例,

原級
He picked up the bright lamp.
比較級
He picked up the brighter lamp.
最高級
He picked up the brightest lamp.

並不是所有形容詞的比較級和最高級都是與原級拼寫形式不同的詞。許多形容詞的比較級和最高級都是通過簡單添加“more”或“most”來構造的。一個典型的例子是“brilliant”這個形容詞。

原級
He is a brilliant student.
比較級
He is a more brilliant student.
最高級
He is the most brilliant student.

在學術寫作中使用形容詞

一般來講,學術寫作應當盡量簡明扼要。這意味著只能在提供必要訊息時才能使用形容詞。使用太多的形容詞會使句子變得冗長難懂。

例句
We developed a three-dimensional model of the protein gloverin.

在上例中,“three-dimensional”是一個複合形容詞,它表達了相關模型的重要訊息。省略這個形容詞會造成重要訊息的丟失。

例句
We developed a highly informative three-dimensional computer model of the antibacterial insect protein gloverin.

這個例子是在上個例子的基礎上增加了形容詞。“Highly informative”和“computer”並沒有提供關於模型的更多訊息,它們只是把句子變得冗長。而“antibacterial”和“insect”這兩個詞則是讓句子冗長得彆扭。實際上,這兩個形容詞所提供的訊息最好是另起一個從句來表達,如下例。

例句
We developed a three-dimensional model of gloverin, an antibacterial insect protein that is isolated from silk moth pupae.