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什麼是片語動詞?

片語動詞是由動詞與介系詞副詞或這兩者結合而成的片語。這樣的組合片語所表示的含義不同於片語中每個詞的單獨含義。在一個句子中,片語動詞的含義是由整個片語來決定的,而不只是由片語中的那個動詞來表達的。另外,需要注意的是,許多片語動詞可能具有不止一個含義。

如何構造片語動詞

片語動詞由一個基本動詞(例如get)和一個副詞(例如along)或/和一個介系詞(例如with)組成,作為一個獨立完整的整套用法來描述特定動作所指的含義。片語動詞有以下三種形式:動詞+介系詞,動詞+副詞,動詞+副詞+介系詞。

動詞與介系詞的組合

許多片語動詞是通過在動詞後面添加介系詞而形成的。介系詞在每個片語動詞中的作用或含義並不相同。

例句
Use up: to exhaust, to use entirely
The guest used up all the water.
例句
Make up: to reconcile
She made up with her parents.

動詞與副詞的組合

片語動詞也可以通過在動詞後面添加副詞而形成。

例句
Take after: to resemble, to look like
She takes after her mother.
例句
Turn off: to shut off, to stop
She turned off the lights.

動詞、副詞和介系詞的組合

最後,有些片語動詞是由動詞、副詞和介系詞組成的。需要注意的是,這類片語動詞中的副詞或介系詞通常不能與動詞隔開,必須緊跟在後。

例句
Get away with: to escape punishment
Don't think about getting away with this.
例句
Sneak up on: to surprise from behind
The cat snuck up on the mouse before pouncing.

何時使用片語動詞

片語動詞在口語或日常書面語中經常用到。然而,在學術寫作中,不建議使用片語動詞。作者應當考慮使用含義相同並更具“學術性”即更為正式的單個動詞來代替片語動詞。

用學術性動詞代替片語動詞

然而,即使是在學術寫作中,有時也可能需要使用片語動詞。這時,需要確保片語動詞不能太不正式。

片語動詞
This paper looks at the effect of Drug Y on patients.
學術性動詞
This paper examines the effect of Drug Y on patients.
片語動詞
The research found out that Drug Y had no effect on the patients.
學術性動詞
The research discovered that Drug Y has no effect on the patients.

以下片語動詞經常出現在學術寫作中 : carry out, consist of, and subject to.

在句子中分隔片語動詞

有些片語動詞允許介系詞或副詞與動詞分隔開,而有些則不允許。片語動詞可以分為以下兩類:可分隔的片語動詞,不可分隔的片語動詞。

可分隔的片語動詞

可分隔的片語動詞是指動詞與介系詞(或副詞)可以分隔的片語動詞。在這類片語動詞中,介系詞或副詞既可以直接緊跟動詞,也可以放在受詞後面。

片語動詞的不分隔用法
The student gave back the book.
片語動詞的分隔用法
The student gave the book back to her.
片語動詞的不分隔用法
Don’t forget to hand in your assignment.
片語動詞的分隔用法
Don’t forget to hand your assignment in.

需要注意的是,當受詞是代名詞時,介系詞或副詞必須放在代名詞後面。

正確
The boy might set off the alarm.
He might set it off.
錯誤
The boy might set off it.

不可分隔的片語動詞

不可分隔的片語動詞是指動詞與介系詞或副詞不能分隔的片語動詞,即介系詞或副詞必須緊跟在動詞後面。

正確
The thieves broke into the house last night.
錯誤
The thieves broke the house into last night.
正確
Please go over the materials before the lecture.
錯誤
Please go the materials over before the lecture.

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常見片語動詞列表

片語動詞 含義 句中示例 可分隔或
不可分隔
Back down

放棄;讓步

It’s too late for them to back down now.

不可分隔

Back off

後退;軟化;減輕;卸下

The attackers finally backed off and left the victim alone.

不可分隔

Back up

支持,援助;(資料)備份;倒退;裱;堵車

I need you to back me up.

可分隔

Call back

回電;收回

Can she call you back in an hour?

可分隔

Call for

要求;需要;提倡;邀請;為…叫喊;前往接某人

This situation calls for immediate action.

不可分隔

Call in

打電話;召集;召來

Employees should call in when they are sick.

可分隔

Call off

取消;依次叫名;叫走

Since it’s raining outside, we should call off the game.

可分隔

Deal with

處理;涉及;做生意

She will deal with this problem herself.

不可分隔

Dig into

鑽研;掘進去

The researchers hope to dig into this issue soon.

不可分隔

Draw back

撤退;拉開;收回;退卻;使保持距離

The military can’t draw backthe troops now.

不可分隔

Drop by

順便拜訪

We will drop by your place on the way to the office.

不可分隔

Drop off

送人;送東西;減少;讓…下車;睡著

I have to drop my sister off at school.

可分隔

End up

最終到達某個狀態、某地或達成某個行動;結束

She ended up in the hospital after the accident.

不可分隔

Fall apart

崩潰;土崩瓦解;破碎

The business deal fell apart.

不可分隔

Fall behind

落在後面;拖欠

Why are you falling behind in school?

不可分隔

Fall out

脫落;發生;爭吵;離隊

He opened his bag and some money fell out.

不可分隔

Fall through

落空;失敗

Unfortunately, the planfell through.

不可分隔

Figure out

解決;算出;想出;理解;斷定

Please give me a few minutes to figure this out.

可分隔

Fill in for

代替,替換別人的位置

Can you fill in for me today at work?

不可分隔

Fit in with

適應;符合;與…一致

This structure doesn’t seem to fit in with its surroundings.

不可分隔

Focus on

集中於,專注於

You should focus on one problem at a time.

不可分隔

Frown upon

不贊成

Bad behavior in public places is very much frowned upon.

不可分隔

Get along with

與…和睦相處;取得進展

It would be nice if you could get along with your brother.

不可分隔

Get away

離開;逃脫;出發

She got away from the thief.

可分隔

Get down to

開始處理;著手處理

Let’s get down to business right away.

不可分隔

Get off

下車,下飛機;動身;免於受罰;脫下

I will be getting off at this stop.

可分隔

Get out of

走出一個地方;逃避;避免;戒掉(某個習慣);從…退出

He tried to get out of doing homework.

可分隔

Get over

克服

He got over the breakup rather quickly.

不可分隔

Get rid of

擺脫,除去

It’s time to get rid of all the old clothes.

不可分隔

Give in

屈服;讓步;交上

She never gives in easily.

不可分隔

Go after

追求,追逐

Do whatever it takes to go after your dream.

不可分隔

Hand in

交上;提交;呈送

Don’t forget to hand in your assignment.

可分隔

Hand out

分發;施捨;把…拿出來

I need help handing these papers out.

可分隔

Hang on to

緊緊抓住;緊握;保留

Hang on to the rope and don’t let go!

不可分隔

Hang out

出去玩;閒逛;掛出

She hangs out with her new friends a lot.

不可分隔

Hang up

掛斷電話;擱置,拖延

Please don’t hang up on me.

不可分隔

Head for

前往;出發;取向於

I’m heading for Montana this summer.

不可分隔

Indulge in

沉湎於,沉溺於

She indulged in some expensive wine.

不可分隔

Jot down

草草記下

Can you jot down the number please?

可分隔

Keep up with

跟上;趕得上;和…保持聯繫

It’s hard to keep up with so much homework.

不可分隔

Leave out

遺漏,省去;不考慮

He left out the answer on purpose.

可分隔

Look ahead

預測未來,計劃未來

Look ahead and plan accordingly.

不可分隔

Look through

瀏覽,溫習;看穿,識破;從…中顯露

The students looked through the book before the test.

不可分隔

Make up with

與…重修舊好;與…和解

I made up with my sister after our huge fight.

不可分隔

Miss out on

錯過機會;錯失

Don’t miss out on the chance to get it for free.

不可分隔

Move out

搬出;開始行動

He moved out of the apartment after finding a more suitable place.

不可分隔

Name after

以…命名

She is named after her grandmother.

不可分隔

Pick up

不費力地學會;撿起;獲得;收拾;汽車或飛機乘載

It’s hard to pick up on what the professor is saying.

可分隔

Pull through

渡過難關;恢復健康

She managed to pull through the illness.

可分隔

Put up with

忍受;容忍

I can’t put up with your whining anymore.

不可分隔

Set off

出發;引起;動身;使爆炸;抵銷;分開

We set off for the trip early in the morning.

可分隔

Show up

出現;露面;露出;揭露

She managed to show up an hour late.

不可分隔

Take apart

拆開;剖析;粗暴對待

Take apart the machine to see what it’s made up of.

可分隔

Take off

起飛;脫下;離開;突然成功

The airplane took off successfully.

可分隔

Think over

仔細考慮;重新考慮

Please think it over before making a final decision.

可分隔

Use up

用完,耗盡

We used up all the gas in the tank.

可分隔

Warm up

熱身;再加熱變暖

Could you please warm up the milk?

不可分隔

Wear away

磨損;消磨;流逝

The rocks were worn away by the rain.

不可分隔