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如何使用介系詞

介系詞是描述單字之間關係的詞。介系詞能夠描述某物或某人的位置。

例句
The cup is on the table.

在上例中,介系詞“on”描述了杯子和桌子之間的關係。介系詞也能描述事件發生的時間和方式。

例句
I arrived before him.
例句
I arrived by bus.

在上例中,介系詞“before”描述的是“I”何時到達的時間與“him”有關,而介系詞“by”表示的是乘坐“bus”是到達的方式。

例句
The purpose of this study was to develop a highly heat resistant composite with a carbon fiber base.
例句
A book is for reading.

介系詞的分類

介系詞的種類 介系詞的作用 介系詞示例

簡單介系詞

用於描述位置、地點或時間

at, for, in, by, off, on, over, under

雙介系詞

兩個簡單介系詞連用,通常用於指示方向

into, onto, upon, up to, inside, outside of, out of, from within

複合介系詞

兩個或兩個以上的詞連用,通常由一個簡單介系詞和另一個詞連用,用於表示位置

in addition to, in front of, at the back of, along with, alongside of, in comparison to, in contrast to

分詞介系詞

分詞當作介系詞使用

considering, including, excluding, during, regarding, provided

片語介系詞(介系詞片語)

包括介系詞、受詞和受詞的修飾語

for example, for instance, on time, under the influence of

簡單介系詞

簡單介系詞描述兩個詞(通常是名詞)在位置或時間上的關係。常用的簡單介系詞包括:at, for, in, by, off, on, over, under

例句
The sample was placed under a microscope.
例句
We have added additional information in the revision.
例句
The board meeting starts at 9:00 am.
例句
The sample was placed under a UV light for 30 minutes.

雙介系詞

雙介系詞通常表示方向,由兩個簡單介系詞組成。常見的雙介系詞包括:into, onto, upon, up to, inside, outside of, out of, from within

例句
We ran into the apartment.
例句
Progressively higher weights were placed upon the composite.
例句
The man walked up to the officer.
例句
Strange groans came from within the box.

複合介系詞

複合介系詞表示位置,至少由兩個詞組成。常見的複合介系詞包括:in addition to, in front of, at the back of, along with, alongside of, in comparison to, in contrast to

例句
In addition to the tests to evaluate heat resistance, we also submerged the samples in water to test their varying degrees of hydrophobia.
例句
I left the package in front of the door.
例句
He picked up a soda along with the pizza.
例句
Sample 1 demonstrated high heat resistance in comparison to sample 2.

分詞介系詞

分詞介系詞是作為介系詞使用的分詞。它們以“-ed”或“-ing”結尾。常用的分詞介系詞包括:considering, including, excluding, during, regarding, provided

例句
Considering its high protein content, the sample’s resistance to heat was surprising.
例句
All of the samples, including the gold composite, were moved to a vacuum chamber.
例句
The professor talked about chirality during her lecture.
例句
The class will begin in five minutes, provided that all students are present.

片語介系詞(介系詞片語)

片語介系詞(又稱介系詞片語)由介系詞、介系詞的受詞和修飾受詞的詞組成。片語介系詞通常以這些詞開頭:in,over,under,during,from,for,behind,before,after,at,for,about,to,of,with。常用的片語介系詞包括:for example, for instance, on time, under the influence of

例句
They arrived at the restaurant on time.
例句
You should not drive under the influence of alcohol.
例句
For example, composite A did not degenerate when heat was applied.
例句
She appreciates the flowers from her children.

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用介系詞結束句子

人們通常認為句子不能以介系詞結尾。這種假設其實不對。有時,在句末不使用介系詞會造成句子不夠自然流暢。

不自然
Is this the movie about which you told me?
自然
Is this the movie you told me about?

另外,把介系詞移到句子中靠前的位置能夠使句子顯得更加正式。

非正式
What journal was your last paper published in?
正式
In which journal was your last paper published?

在上例中,這兩個句子都正確,但後一句比前一句更加正式。因此,在學術寫作中,介系詞很少用在句子末尾。

非正式
This is a topic we previously wrote about.
正式
This is a topic that we discussed in a previous paper.

當把介系詞移到句子中靠前的位置時,需要注意去掉在句子末尾的介系詞。

錯誤
In which journal was your last paper published in?
正確
What journal was your last paper published in?
In which journal was your last paper published?

避免不必要的介系詞

像形容詞一樣,介系詞也經常被濫用,即使母語是英語的作者也如此。濫用介系詞包括兩種情況。第一種情況是在句子中錯誤使用介系詞。

錯誤
Where is the other student at?
正確
Where is the other student?

在上例中,介系詞“at”在語法上是多餘和錯誤的。 第二種情況是句子結構的寫法不好,使用了太多介系詞。

例句
An understanding of gold composites is necessary for any company in the semiconductor industry at this time.

這種句子最好在結構上重寫,使得無需使用那麼多介系詞,示例如下。

例句
Understanding gold composites is necessary for companies in the semiconductor industry.