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代名詞的類型和例子

代名詞是用來代替名詞的詞。代名詞可以用作句子中的主詞、直接受詞、間接受詞、介系詞的受詞,可以代替任何人、動物、地方或事物。代名詞包括以下幾種類型:人稱代名詞,關係代名詞,指示代名詞,反身代名詞,疑問代名詞,所有代名詞。

代名詞的種類

代名詞的種類 代名詞的作用 代名詞的例子
人稱代名詞
(Personal pronoun)

代替人、地點、事物或想法

I, me, she, we, us, them, it, you, they

關係代名詞
(Relative pronoun)

代替句子中的另一個名詞,用來添加更多訊息

Who, whom, whose, which, that, when, where

指示代名詞
(Demonstrative pronoun)

代替已經提到的名詞

This, that, these, those, such, none, neither

不定代名詞
(Indefinite pronoun)

代替未指明或非特指的名詞

Anybody, everybody, nobody, somebody, anyone, everyone, no one, someone, anything, everything, nothing, something

反身代名詞
(Reflexive pronoun)

自指主詞,作為句子的受詞使用

Myself, yourself, yourselves, ourselves, himself, herself, itself, themselves

疑問代名詞
(Interrogative pronoun)

用於發起問題,問的是關於某個特定名詞的情況

Who, what, which, whose

所有代名詞
(Possessive pronoun)

表示名詞的所有權關係

My, our, your, his, her, its, their

人稱代名詞

人稱代名詞用於代替特定的語法人稱,包括第一人稱(I)、第二人稱(you)、第三人稱(he, she, it, they)。根據所指代名詞的性別和數量等情況的不同,人稱代名詞具有不同的形式。人稱代名詞包括I, you, he, she, it, we they, me, him, her, us, them

例句
She is clever.
例句
Did you make a reservation for three?
例句
I hope you will invite them to the party.

先行詞

如果在句子中沒有明確說明名詞,代名詞對不同的人或事物的指代可能就不夠清晰。當在句子中使用代名詞時,應當先使用先行詞,讓讀者知道代名詞指的是什麼。先行詞是指在句子開頭提到的名詞或名詞短語,它在句子的後面用代名詞代替。

例句
Sam drank most of the juice that he bought.
例句
The team has tried its best to achieve success.
例句
Many people lost their jobs because of the economic slowdown.

先行詞不清晰的例子

例句
If you arrive late to the play, she won't let you in.
例句
Sam sent a letter to Mark addressing the problems he encountered during his first year at school.

關係代名詞

關係代名詞用於連接關係分句和獨立分句,以進一步描述相關的人或事物。關係代名詞直接放在它所修飾的名詞或代名詞的後面。關係代名詞包括Who, whom, whose, which, that, when, where

例句
Is the man who came to look for you your father?
例句
She likes books that tell stories of famous people.
例句
That store, where we usually buy our groceries, is closed for the holidays.

Who vs. whom:用作主詞和受詞的代名詞

什麼時候使用“who”或“whom”,有時會讓人混淆。雖然這兩個詞都是代名詞,但它們的用法不同。“Who”用作句子的主詞,而“whom”用作動詞介系詞的受詞。

錯誤
Whom should be elected as the leader?
正確
Who should be elected as the leader?
錯誤
He is the person to who I am married.
正確
He is the person to whom I am married.
錯誤
You didn’t specify the officer who I should give this form to.
正確
You didn’t specify the officer to whom I should give this form.

指示代名詞

指示代名詞用來代替句子中特定的人或物。這些代名詞也可以用來表示時間和空間的多少程度。指示代名詞包括This, that, these, those, such, none, neither

例句
He is late again. That boy is really getting on my nerves.
例句
She loves all kinds of sports. These include badminton and soccer.
例句
I don't like math or science. Neither is fun.

不定代名詞

不定代名詞用來代替不確定或泛指的人或物。與不定冠詞類似,這些代名詞用來指代不確定的人或物。不定代名詞包括Anybody, everybody, nobody, somebody, anyone, everyone, no one, someone, anything, everything, nothing, something

例句
No one likes to have to beg for something.
例句
Everyone is welcome to join the class.
例句
Anything is possible only if you keep trying.

反身代名詞

反身代名詞用來代替句子的主詞。反身代名詞以“-self ”(單數)或“-selves ”(複數)結尾。反身代名詞包括Myself, yourself, yourselves, ourselves, himself, herself, itself, themselves

例句
I saw myself in the mirror.
例句
The book itself isn't difficult, but it's not fun to read.
例句
They recommend this movie even though they have never seen it themselves.

疑問代名詞

疑問代名詞用於發起提問。疑問代名詞包括Who, what, which, whose

例句
Which essay did you like the best?
例句
Whose bag is this?

所有代名詞

所有代名詞用來表示某人或某物對事物的擁有關係。所有代名詞包括My, our, your, his, her, its, their。使用這些代名詞可以避免重複用詞,使句子更為簡潔。

例句
I don't know where my sneakers went, so my sister lent me her sneakers.
I don't know where my sneakers went, so my sister lent me hers.
例句
Your plan sounds just as exciting as my plan.
Your plan sounds just as exciting as mine.